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Politics can be defined as the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power. It's activities aimed at improving someone's status or increasing power within an organization.

The study of politics and power is ancient, the discipline of political science is relatively new. Like other social sciences, political science uses a “scientific” approach, meaning that political scientists approach their study in an objective, rational, and systematic manner. Some political scientists focus on abstract and theoretical questions, while others study particular government policies and their effects.
Political scientists focus upon political systems, including the effect of environment on the system, inputs, the decision-making agencies which render binding public policies, and system outputs. Approaches to the study of government and politics.

Most colleges and universities include political science courses in their liberal studies requirements precisely because an understanding of government and politics is so important. Political science courses are not only excellent preparation for employment, but they better enable people to be informed and active citizens in their community.

(i) Population 
(ii) Territory 
(iii) Government 
(iv) Sovereignity 

(i) *Population:* One major attribute of a state is population for a state to exist, there must be a given number of people which has no minimum or maximum that will occupy it.

(ii) *Territory:* A state must possess a definite territory which has no limit to it size. This territory must have clear cut boundaries that will separate it from other state. The term territory refer to not only hard surface of the earth but other things like airspace, waterlake, mountains, natural resources etc

(iii) *Government:* A state must have a machinery called government that will steer it affairs, Government perform it function on behalf of the state. The existence and survival of a state are maintained by the government 

(iv) *Sovereignty:* The absolute authority of a state to make laws and enforce them throughout the entire territory without approval from a higher power. A state must have the Supreme power to enable it make and enforces law.

(i) *Constitutionalism*
Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher la Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judge or mere fiat of public officials. Throughout the literature dealing with modern public law and foundations of statecraft the central element of the concept of constitutionalism is that in political social government officials are not free to do anything they please in any manner they choose; they are to observe both the limitations on power and the procedures which are set out in the supreme constitutional law of the community. It may therefore be said that the touchstone of constitutionalism the concept of limited government under a higher law.

An example of constitutionalism is federal laws of the United States government which are consistent with the U.S. Constitution.

(ii) *Separation of Power*
Separation of powers refers to a system of government in which its powers are divided between multiple branches, each branch controlling a different aspect of government. In the United States, governmental authority is divided between the executive branch, which is controlled by the President; the legislative branch, which is controlled by Congress; and the judicial branch, which is controlled by the Supreme Court. To explore this concept, 

An example of separation of powers at work, is that, while federal judges are appointed by the President (the executive branch), and confirmed by the Senate; they can be impeached by the legislative branch (Congress), which holds sole power to do that.

(i) *Citizenship by Birth (Jus soli)*
In some countries, when a child is born within the territory of the country, the child is automatically confirmed with citizenship of such country.
Countries such as Canada, Brazil, and Argentina confer automatic citizens on babies born there.

(ii) *Citizenship by Registration*
A person born in a foreign country can acquire citizenship of another country provided a grandparent is a citizen of that country he’s desirous of obtaining citizenship of. Also, citizenship by registration can also be conferred through marriage.

(iii) *Citizenship by Naturalization*
A person can obtain citizenship by naturalization if he/she meets the law requirements for such in a country.

(iv) *Citizenship by Descent*
This is a direct citizenship conferred on a child at birth through his/her parents.

(i) *Ensuring Credible Elections*
The African Union has been monitoring elections in various parts of the continent. This has helped to ensure credible elections and the installation of legitimate governments in many member states. For example, in Madagascar, the AU refused to recognize Marc Revalonmanana in a disputed presidential election in that country. This was because Didier Ratsiraka, the former president had also claimed that he had also won that very election. The A.U. called for a fresh election which eventually led to the victory of Marc Revalonmanana.

(ii) *Welfare of African Children*
The African Union has done a lot to protect the rights and welfare of Africa children. It has instituted the Day of the African Child to project the rights and interests of children. This Day of the African Child is held every 21st June. The Union has been sponsoring programmes for school children in selected member state.

(i) *Financial Problems*
One of the main problems of the African Union is the inadequacy of financial resources to prosecute its objectives. The member states find it difficult to pay their membership dues regularly. This is a spillover from the days of the Organization of African Unity. By the time the A.U. was establishing, member states owed the former organization owed US$50m in unpaid
dues by member states. This financial problem slows down the union’s activities.

(ii) *Prevalence of dictators*
Some member states of the African Union continue to be run by dictators and pseudo-democrats.
This is in spite of the fact that they still promote pan-African democracy in member states. Of the 54 member states of the African Union, only 16 were considered truly democratic and only eight of the countries had a free media.

 Terrorism is defined as political or religious violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols).

(i) *Direct Economic Destruction*
The most immediate and measurable impact of terrorism is physical destruction. Terrorists destroy existing plants, machines, transportation systems, workers and other economic resources.

(ii) *Increased Uncertainty in the Markets*
Even if you do not live anywhere near terrorist attacks, you might still be negatively impacted indirectly. This is because all kinds of markets hate uncertainty, and terrorism creates a lot of it. 

(iii) *Increased Nationalism and Foreign Skepticism*
The final risk to the economy is political risk. Closing down borders to trade and immigrant workers reduces the size and diversity of economic transactions and limits productive resources.

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Solution A Contains of Sodium Thiosulphate 
 in of solution. 
Solution B: contains of potassium trioxoiodate(V) 
in of solution.
Solution C: contains weight per volume of potassium Iodide ( ) solution
Solution D: 1 molar solution of Hydrochloric acid 
Indicator: Starch Soluble
i. Put solution A into the burette.
ii. Pipette of solution B into a clean conical flask and add of each of solution C and D using 
a measuring cylinder. Swirl to mix
iii. From the burette, run solution A into the conical flask until it turns pale yellow.
iv. Add drops of starch soluble indicator into the conical flask and continue until the titration reaches a 
colorless end.
v. Repeat and 4 twice more using a fresh portions of A
vi. Calculate the average titre.
vii. Balance the following redox reaction

i. Calculate the amount in moles of KIO3 in each titration.
ii. Calculate the amount in moles of Na2S2O3 in in of solution A
iii. The value of in the formula 

C. Explain why the following steps were taken in the experiment 
i. Why of solution D was added to step II of the procedure.
ii. Why the starch indicator was added not at the beginning but close to the end. 
2. A. Carry out the following test and record your observation and inferences clearly, using the normal laboratory 
format. Credit will be given for careful observations clearly recorded and explanatory note to account for the 
observed reactions. 
A. You are provided with sample 
 ( ) 
(a) Preliminary test: 
(ii)Heat small amount of the sample in a dry test tube and test for any gas evolved. 
(iii)Moisten a small amount of the sample with a drop of concentrated HCl and heat in a non-luminous 
flame, using a clean spatula. 
(b) Take small portions of the sample in a test tube and in each case carry out the following tests: 
(i) Add concentrated 
to the solid sample and test for any gas evolved. Heat the residue 
(ii) Dissolve sample in water, add dropwise potassium ferricyanide solution. 
(iii) Dissolve sample in water, add dropwise and then excess aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. 
(iv) Dissolve sample in water, add dilute and then silver nitrate solution 
B. You are provided with sample 
 . Carry out one (1) confirmatory test each for the functional groups present in 
the sample.
Volume of pipette 
Indicator used – Starch soluble
Burette Readings 1st Titration 
2nd Titration 
3rd Titration 
Volume of solution B 



 ( )
Iodine is oxidized

 ( )
Iodine is reduced
Multiply (i) by 2 and (ii) by 3 

(b) (i) Amount (mols) of I2 used 
of solution B contains 0.10mols Na2S2O3
of solution B (titre value) will contain 

= 2.887 mol Na2S2O3
(II) Amount (mols) of I2 used
 2mols S2O3
 2.887 mols S2O3

I2 = 1.443 mol I2
(III) Concentration (moldm-3
) of I2 in solution A 
of solution A (volume of pipette) contains 1.443 mol I2
of solution A will contain 

mol I2 = 0.05773moldm-3
(IV) Amount (mols)of KI formed 
 1 mole I2 2 mol KI 
1.443 mol I2 1.443 2 mol KI = 2.886 mol KI 
(v)Amount (mol) of pure KMnO4 used
 + 10I- + 16H+
5I2 + 2Mn2+
 + 8H2O
 2mol MnO4
- mol I2
 Also 1 mol I2 2mols S2O3
 2mol MnO4
 5mols I2 10mols S2O3
Thus 2mols MnO4
 10mols S2O3
5mols S2O3
2- 1mol MnO4
2.887 mols S2O3
- 2.887 

mols MnO4
= 5.774 mol MnO4
(V)Amount (g) of pure KMnO4
 Amount (mol) = ( )

 Molar Mass of KMnO4 = 158
 Amount (g) of KMnO4 = 5.774 158 = 0.09123g
(vii) Purity = 


 = 2.64%
C (i) It is not colourless before and after titration
 (ii) Standardization 
 (iii) Iodometry Titration
(iv)Iodine gas can escape reducing the amount of (mols) of iodine produced
 (v) From +4 to +7
It is oxidized
(iv) HCl will react with KI and also reduces the oxidizing power of KMnO4

i. Appearance 
iii. Flame test 
Brownish/Green Powder
Colorless gas, pungent and fuming in air
No characteristic coloration

 hydrolyzed by moisture 

 or alkali metal present

 ( ) 

Colourless gas, with a pungent smell with 
oranged-red solid left. 
Deep blue precipitate
Volatile HCl
iii. Dirty green Precipitate Precipitate of ( ) 
brown on standing
iv. White precipitate Chloride precipitate AgCl

Sample ( )( )
 Formation of yellow crystals 
 Efferverscence occurse which turns lime 
water milky
Gas is 
 . COOH 
function present
 A sweet fruity smell evolves of an ester Alkanoic acid function confirmed.

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inspiration  can be commonly  be defined  as a supernatural  divine influence  on the prophet, apostles  etc which qualifies them to receive and communicate divine truth. 
It is the divine  origin and qualify of scripture, this is the divine influence  In which God has of  human which allows  them  to receite revelations (2 Timothy 3:16)
===================BBiblical theories  of inspiration or views  of inspiration 

(1)natural theory  
(2)universal  inspiration 
(3)dictation /mechanical 


Natural theory : inspiration under this theory could be  seen through  approach 

(a) The positive  approach 
(b) The negative  approach 

(a) The positive  approach : this theory  argues that there  is nothing supernatural about the Bible. And sees the Bible written  as no  more inspired  authors that the lives of Shakespeare, woke saying a, and achieve etc
(b) positive approach :this theory  see the Bible and it's Contents as man's spiritual  experience  which allows  errors 
Universal  inspiration theory :This theory  believes that inspiration given to the ancient  men is the same given to every age
Dictation /mechanical  theory :This theory proof that man served as Secretary  to God. It argues that God, through  the Holy Spirit take  control of man, by making the Bible writers write from the dictation  of the Holy  Spirit and this Includes choice of word

God sent king Saul to destroy the amalek that he should go and must you must not devote the sinners the Amalekities, to destruction,and he  must  fight against them until you will have extraminated them. and  Saul went striking down amalek from havilah as far as shur which is in front of Egypt and he got catch A gag the king of amalek alive and all the other people he devoted to destruction with the edge of the sword.but Saul and the flock and the herd and the fat ones and upon the rams and upon all that was good, and they did not wish to devote them to destruction. As for all the goods that were despicable and rejected, these they devoted to destruction.and GOD  told Samuel that saul did not obey his voice but went darting greedily at the spoil and doing what was bad in the eyes of Jehovah. And Samuel said to Paul  Jehovah has RIPPED AWAY THE ROYAL RULE OF ISRAEL FROM OFF YOU TODAY. 
(Thing Saul throne was not establish in Israel because of his greedily that God said he should not devote any thing in amalek Paul did not obey the voice of Jehovah but he catch a gag  the king of amalek alive upon the best of the flock, herd and upon all that was good.)

The account of Elijah and the prophets of Baal is recorded in .After Israel had gone more than three years without rain as a judgment for their idolatry, the prophet Elijah confronts the evil king Ahab and challenges him to a spiritual showdown. The king was to have all Israel gather at Mt. Carmel, along with the 450 prophets of the false god Baal and the 400 prophets of the false goddess Asherah 
On Mt. Carmel, Elijah said to the people of Israel, “How long will you waver between two opinions? If the Lord is God, follow him; but if Baal is God, follow him” . The people remained noncommittal at that point. Elijah then challenged the prophets of Baal to prepare a bull as an offering for their god—Elijah would do the same—with this catch: they could light no fire on their altar. The God who answered with fire from the sky would be considered the true 
The people agreed that this was a good plan, and the prophets of Baal went first. The pagan prophets cried out and danced around their altar from morning till noon with no answer from Baal. Elijah began to mock them, saying, “Shout louder! . . . Surely he is a god! Perhaps he is deep in thought, or busy, or traveling. Maybe he is sleeping and must be awakened” .
So the prophets of Baal “shouted louder and slashed themselves with swords and spears, as was their custom, until their blood flowed. Midday passed, and they continued their frantic prophesying until the time for the evening sacrifice” . Despite hours of effort, nothing happened. The historian’s comment hints at the emptiness of Baal-worship: “There was no response, no one answered, no one paid attention” .
Elijah then called the people to him as he repaired the altar of the Lord. He used twelve stones and dug a trench around the altar. He then placed wood on the altar and laid the cut pieces of the bull on it. Elijah then had the people douse the altar with twelve large jars of water. The water soaked the sacrifice and the wood and filled the trench 
Once the sacrifice was ready, Elijah prayed, “Lord, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known today that you are God in Israel and that I am your servant and have done all these things at your command. Answer me, Lord, answer me, so these people will know that you, Lord, are God, and that you are turning their hearts back again” (m. Then God did what Baal could never do: the fire of the LORD fell from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the wood and the stones and the dust, “and also licked up the water in the trench”  The people of Israel bowed down and declared the Lord as God 
Elijah then commanded the people to put the prophets of Baal to death, in keeping with God’s command in Following this event, the Lord finally ended the drought and sent rain upon the land 

The miraculous event of fire from heaven was an answer to the prayer of Elijah. God was seeking to turn the hearts of His people back to Himself. He used a time of drought to get their attention and then, through His prophet, performed a dramatic miracle right before their eyes. No one who witnessed that event doubted that the Lord was God and that Baal was a powerless wannabe. The repentance of the Israelites was soon followed by God’s provision of rain.

James teaches us that “the prayer of a righteous person is powerful and effective” , and he uses Elijah’s prayer life as a case in point: “Elijah was a human being, even as we are. He prayed earnestly that it would not rain, and it did not rain on the land for three and a half years. Again he prayed, and the heavens gave rain, and the earth produced its crops”

Lessons from Elijah and the Prophets of Baal

(1)All Religions Are Not the Same

There is a modern assertion that all religions are the same. Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life, and no one comes to the Father except through Me” (John 14:6). There aren’t many ways to heaven–there’s only one way!
(2) Activity and Enthusiasm Are Not Always Signs of Spirituality

There is no doubt that the prophets of Baal displayed a lot of enthusiasm and activity on Mount Carmel. They were sincere in their efforts, but how many of you know you can be sincerely wrong? Mount Carmel proves that powerfully.
(3)The Act of Faith Is Not the Most Important Thing

Faith is not the important thing. That may strike you as an odd or blasphemous statement, but faith is not paramount. It’s the object of faith that is the most important thing. The people who followed Baal surely had a kind of faith. They had worshiped this god all of their lives. They believed in Baal. They had faith in Baal. But their faith was worthless because the object of their faith was worthless.

Faith doesn’t get you into heaven unless it is faith in God and in His Son, Jesus Christ. This lesson teaches us that only those who believe in Jehovah end up on the winning side. There is no other in which to place your faith.
(4). The Faith You Live by Better Be Good Enough to Die By

If your faith doesn’t bring you hope and help you in your crisis, it’s not of much value to you. God built up the faith of Elijah in the quietness of a brook, the confines of a widow’s home, and walking in the wilderness. So when he needed his faith in the big moment, when he drew a line in the sand and chose a side, his faith came through because he truly trusted God.

So which side are you going to be on? Are you going to live for God and be His follower? Or are you going to keep living for the other things that motivate you in your life? That’s the challenge from this story to all of us, and I hope we will hear it.


Hosea's marriege/symbolism
Hosea  took his own marriage experience  as a symbolism of what happened  between  God and the children  of Israel. Hosea loved his wife(Gomer) just like God love isreal  but she left him and went after another  lover just like the children  of Israel abandoned yaweh  for  back, 
The marriage  symbolised that, God was faithful to the isrealite  and had chosen  them, brought  them out of Egypt. Instead  of faithfulness, the isrealite  paid God back with betrayal. It shows God will punish the isrealite  for their  unfaithfulness

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2019 IJMB Biology Practical Answers Jan/Feb Expo

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1 )phylum
2 )class amphibian


1)soft moist skin
2 ) no scale
3 )no external ear
4 )eggs produced in jelly form
5 )metamorphosis fromlarva to adults in life cycle


1) soft moist skin capable of gaseous exchange 
2) long hind limb for hopping 
3) short fore limb for landing or shock absorber 

draw a diagram of frog and label it 

1 moist skin
2 buccal cavity (opening of the mouth )
3 lungs

1 insects 
2 earthworms
3 slugs

2) swimming 
3) crawling 

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specimen C-scorpian

specimen D-millipede

specimen C

1)Antenna is absent
2)chelicerate is present
3) four pairs of walking legs are present

specimen D

1) presence of antenna 
2)presence of simple eye
3)labrum is present 

specimen C

1 kingdom animalia
2 phylum arthropoda }phylum
3 class arachnida

specimen D

1)kingdom animalia} phylum
2)phylum arthropoda
3)class myriapoda (disploda) 


1)specimen C _ chelicerae is present while chelicerae is absent in specimen D

2) specimen C has no labrum while D has labrum


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1)modified underground stem


1)specimen C- Rhizome
2)specimen D -corm


1)Food storage 
2)vegetable propagation 


1)adventitious root

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1)specimen G-seed of silt cotton 
2)specimen H-tridax
3)specimen I-teccoma
4)specimen J-combretum

1)wind dispersal

1)floss (specimen -G
2)parachute or pappus (specimen -H
3)wind (specimen-I)
4) wind (specimen -J)

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1)specimen K- cactus
2)specimen L-water hyancinth

1)specimen K-xerophyte
2)specimen L-hydrophyte


     specimen -k

1)presence of scale leaves
2)leaves are reduced to needle-like-structure

     specimen -L
1)presence of floating 
2)presence of hair on leaves surface

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1)kingdom plantae
2)division spermatophyta
3)class gymnospermae
4)order pinales
5)family Pina cease 
6)genius pinus
1)high reduced stomata
2)Thick bark

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(7a) draw a diagram


1)specimen O-filament of spiragyra

1)bread mould

1) lichen
draw and label the specimen

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21-30: ACCBACAB--

Working population
19 – 40 + 41 – 60
Total population = 200,000
35/100×200,000/1 +
70,000 + 50,000
= 120,000

Dependent population
0 – 18 + 61 and above
30/100×200000/1 + 10/100×200000/1
60,000 + 20,000

Increased by 1200

=50 died.

The natural increase in the population is birth rate

The age distribution is of optimum population because the working age is greater than dependent age.


Professor Robin’s defined economics as : “Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.”

i) opportunity cost:
Opportunity cost is an economics term that refers to the value of what you have to give up in order to choose something else

ii) scale of preference:
A preference scale in economics is a basic tool that determines the demand of certain prodpolicy

This scale revolves around the basic needs of humans for a specified product.

iii) production possibility curve:
A production possibility curve measures the maximum output of two goods using a fixed amount of input.

The labour force consists of all the people who are able to work in a country or area, or all the people who work for a particular company

Occupational Mobility Of Labour: This refers to the ability of workers to switch career fields in order to find gainful employment or meet labor needs. For example, footballer to university lecturer

Geographical mobility of labour: This is the ability of labour to move around an area, region or country in order to work. Geographical mobility is affected by things such as family ties, transport networks, transferable qualifications and common language. For example, moving from Enugu to Lagos to find work.

(i) Population: As expected, population increases result in labor force increases. Both the strength of the influence and the magnitude are strong. A one percent increase in state population results in a 0.74 percent increase in labor force size.
(ii) Income: As state incomes grow, it attracts labor force entrants hoping to take advantage. However, a state’s cost of living is shown to have no influence on labor force size and is not statistically significant.
(iii) Educational Attainment: A more educated society has a larger labor force.
(iv) Weather conditions: Where weather conditions are favourable, labour tends to be more efficient.

Money is anything that is generally acceptable as a medium of exchange and in the settlement of debts.

(i) Durability
(ii) Divisibility
(iii) Portability

(i) Medium of exchange: During inflation people are likely to lose confidence in money as a means of payment for goods and services because of a fall in its value
(ii) Store of value: The function of money as a store of wealth is undermined during periods of inflation because the money saved loses value.
(iii)Standard of deferred payment: During inflation money does not serve as an adequate standard of deferred payment.
(iv) Unit of account: During inflation, money is not a reliable unit of account.

Unemployment of labour maybe defined as a situation where the people who fall with in the ages of the working population, capable and Willing to work, are unable to obtain befitting work to do.

(i) Frictional unemployment: It arises when people leave their present job with the hope of getting a new and better one but fail to do so. It may be a temporary unemployment depending on the prevailing economic situation e.g leaving the state civil service to a private firm

(ii) Structural unemployment: This is as a result of slight changes in the industrial structure of a country. Workers will be retrenched as a result of economic recession and it happened in Nigeria in 1984. when firms fold up as a result of this. e.g when production becomes capital intensive

(iii) Seasonal unemployment: This is caused by seasonal changes that affect some types of work. Also farmers stay idle in between harvesting periods e.g workers that work in road construction companies remain unemployed during rainy season.

(i) Absence of industries: West African countries do not have enough industries that can absorb the large number of school leavers every year
(ii) When supply is higher than demand: This will affect many industries and cause retrenchment or lay-off of workers
(iii) Lack of social amenities in rural areas: This constitutes a push factor to rural-urban migration, which makes the youth s prefer settling in the urban areas even when they can get employment in rural areas

(i)growing economy: When families feel confident, they spend more instead of saving. They expect to get raises and better jobs. They know their homes and other investments will increase in value. They feel that the government is doing the right thing in guiding the economy.
(ii)expectation of inflation: Former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke explained it this way. Once people expect inflation, they will buy things now to avoid higher future prices. That increases demand, which then creates demand-pull inflation.
(iii)over-expansion of the money supply: That’s when there is too much money chasing too few goods. That occurs when the government prints too much money. It does this to pay off its debt. Oversupply of money is the primary driver of hyperinflation.
(iv)discretionary fiscal policy: Government spending drives up demand according to Keynesian economic theory. For example, military spending raises prices for military equipment. When the government lowers taxes, it also drives demand.
(i) it discourages savings;
(ii) it discourages production and encourages buying and selling
(iii) fixed income earners suffers
(iv) the value of money falls

8a) Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration.

8b)Free trade area is a type of trade bloc, a designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas on most goods traded between them While A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. The participant countries set up
common external trade policy

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WAEC GCE 1ST SERIES Physics 2 (Essay) Physics 1 (Objective) 2019 DUBS - By Alitech On January 28, 2019

*WAEC GCE 1ST SERIES Physics 2 (Essay)and 
Physics 1 (Objective) 2019 DUBS - Alitech 07066670798*

 WAEC GCE 1ST SERIES Physics 2 (Essay)
Physics 1 (Objective) 2019 DUBS - By Alitech On January 28, 2019*

Monday 28th January, 2019

Physics 2 (Essay)
Physics 1 (Objective)

9.30 am – 11.00 am
11.00 am – 12.15 pm



The yield point of an elastic material is defined and said to be reached when a stretched wire does not return to its original position.



P - Filament Envelop
Q - Filament
R - Pin


A semiconductor is defined as a solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals, either due to the addition of an impurity or because of temperature effects. Devices made of semiconductors, notably silicon, are essential components of most electronic circuits.

(i) Sulphur
(ii) Carbon
(iii) Silicon


(i) Photoelectricity
(ii)  Momentum
(iii) Radiation of energy from hot bodies.


The airbus is a projectile

It is a projectile because it must have taken off at an angle to the horizontal and then traced a parabolic path.


Energy is ability to do work
Energy = mgh

In S.I Units,
Energy = kg(m/s²)m
= kgm²/s²

In dimension form,
Energy = f x d
= Ma x d
= Mass x acceleration x distance
MLT-² * L
Energy = ML²T-²


Upthrust is define as less weight at a body partially or wholly immersed in a liquid

(8aii) set belts helps to check the effect at Newton first law. When an external force acts as a body moving in the uniform motion, seat belts helps to oppose the body willingness to continue in that state at uniform motion.

- a satellite circling around the earth
- the moon circling the earth
- the planets moving around the sun

 Given: mass, m = 300g (0.3kg)
Initial velocity, u = 10m/s
G = 10m/s
Finial velocity, v = 0
Using V² = U² - 2gh
0² = 10² - 2(10)h
0 = 100 – 20h
20h = 100
H = 100/20
Maximum height, h = 5m, potential energy, P.E = mgh
= 0.3 x 10 x 5 = 155

On return journey, u = om/s
V = ?,
 h = 5m,
g = 10m/s²
using: V² = u² + 2gh
v² = 0² + 2(10 x 5)
v² = 0 + 100
v² = 100
v = √100
v = 10m/s
this  its velocity just before it strikes the ground K.E = ½ mv²
= ½ x 0.3 x 10²
K.E = ½ x 0.3 x 100
K.e = 15J

At the height, the body has potential energy only as it falls, it has both potential and kinetic energy, just before it touches the ground it has only K.E


(i) change in state
(ii) thermonic emission
(iii) chemical charge
(iv) change in temperature

It means that 3.34 x 10⁵ joules at heat is required to melt a unit mass at ice

Heat supplied = heat gained + heat gained by stem by water  ice
Let the mass of steam be Ms
(msls + ms cw Ư) = mw cwƯ + Mi Li + Mi Cw Ư
(ms x 2.3 x 10⁶) + (ms x 4200 x (100-35) = {0.3 x 4200 + (35 – 350} + 0.02 x 3.34 x 10⁵) + (0.02 x 4200 x 35)
2300000Ms + 273,000Ms = 0 + 6680 + 2940 + 2573000Ms = 9620
Ms = 0.0037kg
Total mass of water in container = 0.3 + 0.02 + 0.0037 = 0.3237kg


(i) Length of the string
(ii) Tension in the string

P - Pulley
Q -  Pivot

(i) It is used in producing sounds.
(ii) It determines the frequency of sound produced by a plucked string

(i) Fundamental note : This is the lowest frequency but the strongest audible frequency.

(ii) Overtone: These are the next higher frequencies or modes of vibration above a fundamental that a body can emit.

(iii) Harmonics is the higher  frequency which are integral or whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency can also be produced in the strings

L =?
Frequency f1 = 350Hz
L+15 = ?, f2 = 280Hz
Given that F*1/l,
f = k/L
F1L1 = F2L2
350L1 = 280(L+15)
350L1 = 280L+4200
350L1-280L = 4200
70L = 4200
L = 105cm


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